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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 59-67

Prevalence of diabetic kidney disease before and after renal transplantation in Arab countries


1 Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
3 Department of Public Health and Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ, Transplant Center of, Kuwait
4 MRCP of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ, Transplant Center of, Kuwait
5 Dasman Diabetes Institute of, Kuwait

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Osama Gheith
Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Safat 13001
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jesnt.jesnt_15_18

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Introduction The Arab world contains 22 countries with a total population of 362.5 million people. The prevalence of diabetes around the world has reached epidemic proportions. It already affects nearly more than 350 million people and is predictable to grow to more than 550 million people by 2035. The prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in Arab countries is not well studied. The aim of the study was to review and present the prevalence of DKD among the Arabian population. Materials and methods We reviewed most of the published data − since the 1980s − in different Arabic countries regarding the prevalence of diabetes and DKD. Results The Arab countries with the highest prevalence of T2DM are: the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (31.6%), Oman (29%), Kuwait (25.4%), Bahrain (25.0%), and the United Arab Emirates (25.0%). The lowest prevalence was found in Mauritania (4.7%) and Somalia (3.9%). Arab countries with high prevalence of micro-albuminuria included UAE, KSA, Bahrain, and Lebanon while KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Egypt represented countries with the highest prevalence of macro-albuminuria. Low prevalence of DM and DKD was found in Iraq and Tunisia. These differences could be attributed to the genetic predisposition and the change in lifestyle. The cumulative incidence of PTDM at 12 months post-transplant was 17.6% in Sudan, 27% in KSA, 27% among the Egyptian liver transplants, 22.2% among the Egyptian kidney recipients, and 33% in Bahrain. There is no data available regarding diabetic kidney disease in renal transplant recipients in Arab countries. Conclusion Diabetic nephropathy is not an uncommon complication of diabetes (types 1 and 2) in Arab countries. Rapid economic growth in some Arabic speaking countries improved the infrastructure, but carries with it the burden of risk factors of DM. Large prospective collaborative studies are critically needed to explore this medical and socioeconomic problem among the Arab people before and after renal transplantation.


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